一些MySQL基础操作和sql优化的笔记

一些MySQL基础操作和sql优化的笔记

SQL优化可以减轻服务器压力、提高网页打开速度,所以这些笔记是很有用的:

基础操作
	mysql表复制
		复制结构 create table t2 like t1;
		复制数据 insert into t2 select * from t1;(t2 和 t1的表结构一致)
		
	mysql索引
		普通索引
			create index in_name on t1 (name);
			drop index in_name on t1;
			----------------------------
			alter table t1 add index in_name (name);
			alter table t1 drop index in_name;
		唯一索引 (确保没有重复数据)
			create unique index un_name on t1 (name);
			drop index un_name on t1;
			----------------------------
			alter table t1 add unique un_name(name);
			alter table t1 drop index un_name;
		主键索引
			
			清除类型约束
			alter table t1 modify id int(4) not null
			删除主键
			alter table t1 drop primary key;	

			建立主键索引
			alter table t1 add primary key(id);
			alter table t1 modify id int(4) not null auto_increment;	

	mysql视图
		创建视图
		create view v_t1 as select * from t1 where id<5;
		特点:
			主表数据发生更新 视图对应更新
			视图更新 主表也对应更新
			视图依赖于主表 主表删除 视图不存在

		删除视图
		drop view v_t1;
		查看视图
		show  tables;					

	mysql内置函数
		链接:
		select concat('aa','bb');
		select concat('aa','bb') as ab;
		大小写转化
		select LCASE('MYSQL');
		select UCASE('mysql');
		select UCASE(name) from t1;
		字符长度
		select length('abc');
		去除空格
		select ltrim('   abc');	//左边
		select rtrim('abc   ');	//右边
		select trim('   abc   ');//两端
		重复
		select repeat('mysql',100);	
		替换
		select replace('mysql is nice','nice','good');
		select rand();	
		//随机查询一条数据
		select * from t1 order by rand() limit 0,1;
		时间戳
		select unix_timestamp();	

	mysql预处理
		创建预处理
		prepare stmt from 'select * from t1 where id>? and id<?';

		设置变量
		set @id1=1,@id2=5;

		绑定变量 并执行预处理
		execute stmt using @id1,@id2;	

		删除预处理
		drop prepare stmt;			

	mysql存储
		修改mysql语句结束符号 \d //

		mysql> create procedure sel1(flag int(4))
		    -> begin
		    -> select * from t1 where id=flag;
		    -> end//
		Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)

		--------------------------------------
		mysql> create procedure ins(num int(4))
	    -> begin
	    -> set @i=0;
	    -> while @i<num do
	    -> insert into t1 values(null,concat('user',@i));
	    -> set @i=@i+1;
	    -> end while;
	    -> end //
		Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

		调用存储
		call  ins(1000000);	
	
	mysql触发器
		创建插入触发器(在插入t1表的每一行数据之前触发插入t2表相同的name值)
		mysql> create trigger tg1 before insert on t1 for each row
		    -> begin
		    -> insert into t2 (name) values(new.name);
		    -> end //
		Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)	

		创建修改触发器 (在修改每一条t1数据之后触发修改t2表的name值)
		mysql> create trigger tg2 after update on t1 for each row
		-> begin	
	    -> update t2 set name=new.name where name=old.name;
	    -> end//	

	mysql表的auto_increment重排
		清空表 设置auto_increment=1;

		导出除了id的所有字段
		select name from t2 into outfile '../../name.txt';(相对mysql.exe路径)
		格式化表数据
		truncate table t2;	
		导入数据	
	
	mysql数据操作(导入 导出)

	mysql的读写锁
		读锁:当前终端对表加读锁 (所有终端)只能对标进行查询,不能写入操作	
			lock table t2 read
			unlock  tables;
		写锁:当前终端对表加写锁 这个终端对标完成控制,可以读写操作。但是别的终端不能执行读写


mysql的优化
	关系型
		以二维表格以及之间的联系组成的数据结构
		mysql/orcale/Db2
		orcale:甲骨文 100左右
		db2:IBM 100左右		
	非关系
		key->value(json) {'name':'zhangsan','age':'21',......}
		memcache/redis/mongodb	node.js	
特点:开源免费 
	淘宝:
		第一阶段:mysql 并发量不太高
		第二阶段: orcale 5000(并发瓶颈)
		第三阶段:mysql集群

架构方法:
	高并发
		第一方式:mysql主从互备(负载)
			实现负载:lvs (linux v  server) ->采用ip负载均衡技术将请求分发到不同的服务器
			bin_log日志:
			开启:my.ini -》log-bin=mysql-bin将前面的注释去掉-》重启mysql服务
			测试:执行写入操作-》sql语句自动记录到日志中
			查看日志内容:show binlog events;
			文件位置:C:\xampp\mysql\data\mysql-bin.000001
		第二方式:mysql的集群(冗余)防止单点故障
			主数据库如果宕机,通过协议(心跳线)检测,备份的数据库激活,代替主数据库承担响应	

	大数据
		mysql的表以文件的方式存储
		myisam:
			.frm:存储结构 、触发器、事件
			.myd(data):存数据
			.myi(index):存索引
		innodb:
			.frm:存储结构 、触发器、事件		
			.ibd:存储索引和数据
		分表
			垂直拆分
				导致数据文件大小降低,计算机在每次打开数据文件提升效率
			水平拆分	
				导致数据文件大小降低,导致每张表的数据减少,从子表找数据效率由于从原标找的效率	
sql优化:
	mysql的属性status(只读)/variables(读写)	
	status:
	show [global|session] status like '查询内容'
		global:mysql服务启动之后的属性
		session:当前会话(当前终端)开启以后的属性

	show global status like 'Com_select';//所有的查询次数		
	show global status like 'Com_delete';//所有的删除次数		
	show global status like 'Com_update';//所有的修改次数		
	show global status like 'Com_insert';//所有的添加次数	

	show global status like 'connections'; 	//查看mysql的链接次数

	show global status like 'Uptime';	//mysql的启动时间(秒)	

	show global variables like '%slow%';
	+---------------------------+---------------------------------------+
	| Variable_name             | Value                                 |
	+---------------------------+---------------------------------------+
	| log_slow_admin_statements | OFF                                   |
	| log_slow_slave_statements | OFF                                   |
	| slow_launch_time          | 2                                     |
	| slow_query_log            | OFF                                   |慢日志关闭
	| slow_query_log_file       | C:\xampp\mysql\data\admin-PC-slow.log |慢日志文件位置
	+---------------------------+---------------------------------------+
	
	开启慢日志	
	set global slow_query_log="ON";-》在data生成慢日志文件
	查看sql定义为慢语句的时间:
	mysql> show variables like 'long_query_time';
	+-----------------+----------+
	| Variable_name   | Value    |
	+-----------------+----------+
	| long_query_time |10.00000  |
	+-----------------+----------+
	设置时间:
	set global long_query_time=2;//只要超过2秒的语句都会写入到慢日志中

	定位分析慢语句(查询)
	explain/desc  select * from t1 where name='user123'\G;	
	*************************** 1. row ***************************
			           id: 1
			  select_type: SIMPLE
			        table: t1
			         type: ALL
			possible_keys: NULL 可能使用到的索引
			          key: NULL  实际用到的索引
			      key_len: NULL
			          ref: NULL
			         rows: 951442  执行语句所影响的行数
			        Extra: Using where
			1 row in set (0.00 sec)

			ERROR:
			No query specified


	建立索引
		给name字段创建索引:create index in_name on t1 (name);
		执行 explain select * from t1 where name='user123'\G;
		*************************** 1. row ***********************
			           id: 1
			  select_type: SIMPLE
			        table: t1
			         type: ref
			possible_keys: in_name
			          key: in_name
			      key_len: 768
			          ref: const
			         rows: 1
			        Extra: Using where; Using index
			1 row in set (0.00 sec)

			ERROR:
			No query specified

		查询语句需要注意的问题:
			a.使用模糊匹配 like '%xxx' 和 like '%xxx%';有索引但是使用不到	
			  使用模糊匹配 like 'xxx%' 才能使用到索引
			b.where name=12345;使用不到索引 (查询数据类型跟表中的类型不一致)
			  where	 name='12345';使用到索引
			c.如果有子查询索引使用不到 

其他方式:
	optimize table t1;清空(整理表的碎片空间)
	不要在网站的高并发的时间段使用 

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