深入理解javascript中的自调用函数(function(){})()

深入理解javascript中的自调用函数(function(){})()

javascript和其他编程语言相比比较随意,所以javascript代码中充满各种奇葩的写法,有时雾里看花,当然,能理解各型各色的写法也是对javascript语言特性更进一步的深入理解。

( function(){…} )()和( function (){…} () )是两种javascript立即执行函数的常见写法,最初我以为是一个括号包裹匿名函数,再在后面加个括号调用函数,最后达到函数定义后立即执行的目的,后来发现加括号的原因并非如此。要理解立即执行函数,需要先理解一些函数的基本概念。

函数声明、函数表达式、匿名函数

函数声明:function fnName () {…};使用function关键字声明一个函数,再指定一个函数名,叫函数声明。

函数表达式 var fnName = function () {…};使用function关键字声明一个函数,但未给函数命名,最后将匿名函数赋予一个变量,叫函数表达式,这是最常见的函数表达式语法形式。

匿名函数:function () {}; 使用function关键字声明一个函数,但未给函数命名,所以叫匿名函数,匿名函数属于函数表达式,匿名函数有很多作用,赋予一个变量则创建函数,赋予一个事件则成为事件处理程序或创建闭包等等。

函数声明和函数表达式不同之处在于,一、Javascript引擎在解析javascript代码时会‘函数声明提升'(Function declaration Hoisting)当前执行环境(作用域)上的函数声明,而函数表达式必须等到Javascirtp引擎执行到它所在行时,才会从上而下一行一行地解析函数表达式,二、函数表达式后面可以加括号立即调用该函数,函数声明不可以,只能以fnName()形式调用 。以下是两者差别的两个例子。

代码如下:


fnName();
function fnName(){
    ...
}
//正常,因为‘提升'了函数声明,函数调用可在函数声明之前

fnName();
var fnName=function(){
    ...
}
//报错,变量fnName还未保存对函数的引用,函数调用必须在函数表达式之后


代码如下:


var fnName=function(){
    alert('Hello World');
}();
//函数表达式后面加括号,当javascript引擎解析到此处时能立即调用函数
function fnName(){
    alert('Hello World');
}();
//不会报错,但是javascript引擎只解析函数声明,忽略后面的括号,函数声明不会被调用
function(){
    console.log('Hello World');   
}();
//语法错误,虽然匿名函数属于函数表达式,但是未进行赋值操作,
//所以javascript引擎将开头的function关键字当做函数声明,报错:要求需要一个函数名


在理解了一些函数基本概念后,回头看看( function(){…} )()和( function (){…} () )这两种立即执行函数的写法,最初我以为是一个括号包裹匿名函数,并后面加个括号立即调用函数,当时不知道为什么要加括号,后来明白,要在函数体后面加括号就能立即调用,则这个函数必须是函数表达式,不能是函数声明。


代码如下:


(function(a){
    console.log(a);   //firebug输出123,使用()运算符
})(123);

(function(a){
    console.log(a);   //firebug输出1234,使用()运算符
}(1234));

!function(a){
    console.log(a);   //firebug输出12345,使用!运算符
}(12345);

+function(a){
    console.log(a);   //firebug输出123456,使用+运算符
}(123456);

-function(a){
    console.log(a);   //firebug输出1234567,使用-运算符
}(1234567);

var fn=function(a){
    console.log(a);   //firebug输出12345678,使用=运算符
}(12345678)


可以看到输出结果,在function前面加!、+、 -甚至是逗号等到都可以起到函数定义后立即执行的效果,而()、!、+、-、=等运算符,都将函数声明转换成函数表达式,消除了javascript引擎识别函数表达式和函数声明的歧义,告诉javascript引擎这是一个函数表达式,不是函数声明,可以在后面加括号,并立即执行函数的代码。

加括号是最安全的做法,因为!、+、-等运算符还会和函数的返回值进行运算,有时造成不必要的麻烦。

不过这样的写法有什么用呢?

javascript中没用私有作用域的概念,如果在多人开发的项目上,你在全局或局部作用域中声明了一些变量,可能会被其他人不小心用同名的变量给覆盖掉,根据javascript函数作用域链的特性,可以使用这种技术可以模仿一个私有作用域,用匿名函数作为一个“容器”,“容器”内部可以访问外部的变量,而外部环境不能访问“容器”内部的变量,所以( function(){…} )()内部定义的变量不会和外部的变量发生冲突,俗称“匿名包裹器”或“命名空间”。

JQuery使用的就是这种方法,将JQuery代码包裹在( function (window,undefined){…jquery代码…} (window)中,在全局作用域中调用JQuery代码时,可以达到保护JQuery内部变量的作用。

javascript中的自调用函数相关文章:JavaScript新的ECS6标准部分语法


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  1. in Filesystem.php line 81
  2. at HandleExceptions->handleError('2', 'file_put_contents(): Only 0 of 269 bytes written, possibly out of free disk space', '/data/home/qxu1649280102/htdocs/local/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Filesystem/Filesystem.php', '81', array('path' => '/data/home/qxu1649280102/htdocs/local/storage/framework/sessions/d91599870eb2e33115c3775b2ed643ee606800a2', 'contents' => 'a:4:{s:6:"_token";s:40:"n9Ro7djr4il3b8N3ZMWJbcxt7NoCP1D7NfttYW2R";s:9:"_previous";a:1:{s:3:"url";s:32:"http://icodes.cc/view/1494382486";}s:9:"_sf2_meta";a:3:{s:1:"u";i:1542822530;s:1:"c";i:1542822530;s:1:"l";s:1:"0";}s:5:"flash";a:2:{s:3:"old";a:0:{}s:3:"new";a:0:{}}}', 'lock' => true))
  3. at file_put_contents('/data/home/qxu1649280102/htdocs/local/storage/framework/sessions/d91599870eb2e33115c3775b2ed643ee606800a2', 'a:4:{s:6:"_token";s:40:"n9Ro7djr4il3b8N3ZMWJbcxt7NoCP1D7NfttYW2R";s:9:"_previous";a:1:{s:3:"url";s:32:"http://icodes.cc/view/1494382486";}s:9:"_sf2_meta";a:3:{s:1:"u";i:1542822530;s:1:"c";i:1542822530;s:1:"l";s:1:"0";}s:5:"flash";a:2:{s:3:"old";a:0:{}s:3:"new";a:0:{}}}', '2') in Filesystem.php line 81
  4. at Filesystem->put('/data/home/qxu1649280102/htdocs/local/storage/framework/sessions/d91599870eb2e33115c3775b2ed643ee606800a2', 'a:4:{s:6:"_token";s:40:"n9Ro7djr4il3b8N3ZMWJbcxt7NoCP1D7NfttYW2R";s:9:"_previous";a:1:{s:3:"url";s:32:"http://icodes.cc/view/1494382486";}s:9:"_sf2_meta";a:3:{s:1:"u";i:1542822530;s:1:"c";i:1542822530;s:1:"l";s:1:"0";}s:5:"flash";a:2:{s:3:"old";a:0:{}s:3:"new";a:0:{}}}', true) in FileSessionHandler.php line 83
  5. at FileSessionHandler->write('d91599870eb2e33115c3775b2ed643ee606800a2', 'a:4:{s:6:"_token";s:40:"n9Ro7djr4il3b8N3ZMWJbcxt7NoCP1D7NfttYW2R";s:9:"_previous";a:1:{s:3:"url";s:32:"http://icodes.cc/view/1494382486";}s:9:"_sf2_meta";a:3:{s:1:"u";i:1542822530;s:1:"c";i:1542822530;s:1:"l";s:1:"0";}s:5:"flash";a:2:{s:3:"old";a:0:{}s:3:"new";a:0:{}}}') in Store.php line 262
  6. at Store->save() in StartSession.php line 88
  7. at StartSession->terminate(object(Request), object(Response)) in Kernel.php line 145
  8. at Kernel->terminate(object(Request), object(Response)) in index.php line 60